Besides target staining/detection and quantification, for example, via Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry, antibodies can be used for a variety of functional assays such as:
- Blocking - where an antibody binds its target, thus directly interfering with its function, for example, by blocking its ability to bind a ligand.
- Neutralization - here, an antibody binds its target and abolishes its downstream effects, for example, its ability to influence cell proliferation.
- Activation or agonism - this may occur when an antibody binds a receptor in a manner that mimics the binding of the receptor's natural ligand, resulting in antibody-mediated downstream signaling.
- Immunodepletion - removal of a target protein by sequestering it with an antibody.
These functional assays may be carried out in vitro or in vivo. Critically, antibodies used for in vivo functional assays should be devoid of toxic preservatives that may lead to unspecific immune responses, such as sodium azide, and have very low levels of endotoxin. Here, provide an overview of what Nordic BioSite can offer when it comes to in vivo-compatible antibodies.
While InVivoMab™ antibodies from BioXCell are specifically formulated for in vivo use, many of them can also be used for common in vitro applications including Western blotting, ELISA, flow cytometry, and immunoprecipitation, to name a few.
The main features of the InVivoMab™ antibodies are:
- Purity exceeds 95% (as determined by SDS-PAGE)
- Ultra-low endotoxin levels (< 2 endotoxin units per milligram)
- Preservative, stabilizer, and carrier protein-free.
For researchers who require additional QC measures besides those included in the InVivoMab™ antibodies, the InVivoPlus™ antibodies from BioXCell are an excellent option. These are structurally and functionally identical to and share the same features as the InVivoMab's, but undergo additional QC measures as follows:
- Screening for a range of murine pathogens (mycoplasma and viruses) using ultrasensitive qPCR
- Screening for protein aggregation via dynamic light scattering. Levels guaranteed to be ≤ 5%.
- Advanced binding validation via flow cytometry, ELISA, and/or Western blotting.
In addition, the InVivoPlus™ antibodies are guaranteed to contain less than 1 endotoxin unit per milligram. All in all, the features of this range are expected to exceed the strict demands and rigorous standards required for in vivo work at any research organization.
In Vivo Antibodies from BioLegend
BioLegend provide in vivo or biofunctional antibodies that fall into three categories, as outlined in the table just below: